The unit of battery capacity in mAh (milliampere hour), and the unit of current is A (ampere) or mA (milliampere). The two are not the same physical quantity, and the battery capacity is not necessarily related to the charging current.
The current value marked on the mobile phone charger (actually it is more appropriate to call it the power adapter) is the maximum output current, but not the charging current, and these two should not be mixed up. The charging current of the battery is controlled by the charging circuit inside the mobile phone and is not determined by the power adapter.
Therefore, the greater the rated maximum output current, the greater the power of this power adapter, and it can replace other low-power adapters with the same voltage, which is not a problem, and there is no saying that "high-current adapters shorten battery life".
Moreover, there are regulations in electricity that the high current power supply with the same voltage can replace the low current power supplies types, but the reverse is not possible, because if you use a particularly small power adapter to charge, the adapter may be in an overload state, which will burn the adapter.
The output voltage of the power adapter needs to be equal to the input voltage of the electric equipment (or the electric equipment clearly indicates that the input voltage is within a range and the output voltage of the adapter is within this range).
The output current of the DC adapter types is the maximum current that the adapter can output, and the actual output current is determined by the electric equipment. Simply put, it depends on the impedance of the electric equipment and the internal impedance of the power adapter I=U/(R in + R out).
The (maximum) output current of the power adapter actually characterizes its internal resistance (the larger the output current, the smaller the internal resistance, that is, the adapter itself consumes less power and more can be used for external power).
Therefore, whether it can be used interchangeably depends on the nominal input current of the electric equipment. If the nominal input current of the electric equipment is less than the output current of the power adapter, it can be used. Otherwise, it cannot, but the equipment will not consequently damage.